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General Dictionaries

Welcome to General Dictionaries page, a listing dedicated to all non-music dictionaries that contain bass relevant information. As a difference from the Music Dictionaries pages that are divided in the biographical and term classified works, the General Dictionaries page presents a unified listing of biographical and terminological works together.

In respect to the criteria for inclusion, the word Dictionary or Lexicon (in any language) should be in the title of a print. In instances where the title designates the work as an encyclopedia or an encyclopedic dictionary, and likewise both “Encyclopedia” and “Dictionary” appear in the heading, the work will be cross-referenced and cited at both Encyclopedias and Dictionaries pages.

Thus you will find here several profiles of dictionaries mixed together, including: the official National Vocabulary Dictionaries – i.e. dictionary projects that were part of the National Academies and Learned Societies ; Etymological Dictionaries ; the other Dictionaries with wider coverage of Arts and Sciences, yet not offering the full encyclopedic format and in some instances lacking some fields that an encyclopedia would commonly cover ; Foreign Language Dictionaries, that in fact may offer a very specific period references to bass instruments nomenclatures in various languages ; Terminological Dictionaries of various profiles ;  Biographical Dictionaries of various profiles ; lastly the Encyclopedic Dictionaries, whose coverage may approach an encyclopedia, but are typically focused on etymology and common use of words within a certain period.

The documentation principles applied here are similar to those applied with the Music Dictionaries’ pages, so with some entries you will find relevant comments in brackets posted below. Likewise, where several bass entries are cited, the most important one will be marked by a red dot. All the citations will follow in appearance and font the original text, so that any additional context may be preserved. In respect to the font type, some of these entries will contain period s – ſ , or German double s – ß, that were once common, and bear reference to period nomenclature. Many German entries from 18th and 19th century encyclopedias have been printed in Gothic font as well, and where appropriate, a small translation of the main points of a particular entry are provided for the sake of convenience. Everything else should be self explanatory and ready to serve your search and research interests.

Chronological Listing

17th Century
18th Century
19th Century
20th Century
21st Century

Geographical Listing 1

Czech Republic – Bohemia

Index Map

Note 1. Geographical listing designates the place of publication, which in some instances may differ from the main residence of the author. The listing of cities however may still offer good reference on important bassists, composers and other musicians, and along the types of stringed bass instruments that were noted in a particular region at the time of publication.

Accademia della Crusca – AdC – InfoLC Authority

Vocabolario – Online View [all editions] – Search Engine PageInfo

  • Vocabolario Degli Accademici Della Crusca: Con Tre Indici Delle Voci, Locuzioni, E Proverbi Latini, E Greci, Posti Per Entro L’opera, 1st ed. Venice: Giovanni Alberti, 1612.

Online View & Download – AdC

[ unable to locate any reference to stringed bass instruments incl. Violone ]

  • Vocabolario Degli Accademici Della Crusca: Con Tre Indici Delle Voci, Locvzioni, E Prouerbi Latini, E Greci, Posti Per Entro L’opera. 2nd ed. Venice: Iacopo Sarzina, 1623.

Online View & Download – AdCMDZ  

[ unable to locate any reference to stringed bass instruments incl. Violone ]

  • Vocabolario Degli Accademici Della Crusca: In Questa Terza Impressione, Novamente Correto, e Copiosamente Accresiuto, 3rd ed. 3 vols. Florence: Accademia della Crusca, 1691.

Vol. 2
Online View – AdC

Contrabbasso, vol. 2, p. 400 – AdC

[ refers to vocal bass (Baritono) ] 

Vol. 3
Online View – AdC

Violone, vol. 3, p. 1788 – AdC

  • Vocabolario Degli Accademici Della Crusca: CompendiatoDa un Accademico Animoso. 4th ed. 6 vols. Florence: Domanico Maria Manni [Venice: Lorenco Basegio], 1729-38.

Vol. 1
Online View – AdC

Bassetto entry, vol. 1, p. 392 – AdC 

[ “Strumento di quattro corde che si suona come il contrabbasso” ]

Contrabbasso entry – vol. 1, p. 792 – AdC  

[ “Strumento grande, che ha quattro corde, e si suonacoll’ arco” ]

Vol. 5
Online View – AdC

Violoncello, vol.5, p. 281 – AdC 

[ refers to Violone ]

Violone entry, vol. 5, p. 281 – AdC

  • Vocabolario Degli Accademici Della Crusca. (ed. unknown) Venezia: Francesco Pitteri, 1742.

Vol. 1 (A- )
Online View & Download – MDZ

Contrabbaso, vol. 1, p. 300 – MDZ

[ refers to vocal bass (Baritono) ]

Vol. 5 (T-Z)
Online View & Download – MDZ

Violone, vol. 5 (T-Z) p. 184 – MDZ

  • Vocabolario Degli Accademici Della Crusca: Oltre Le Giunte Fatteci Finora Cresciuto D’assai Migliaja Di Voci E Modi De’ Classici, Le Più Tovate Du Veronesi. 5th ed. 11 vols.Verona: D. Ramanzini, 1806.

Vol. 3
Online View – AdC

Contrabbasso entry, vol. 3, p. 617 – AdC

[“Il piu grande degl’ instrumenti musicali ad arco, fornito per lo piu di tre corde …” ]

Académie des Beaux-Arts (France) – InfoLC Authority

  • Dictionnaire De L’académie Des Beaux-Arts. Paris: Firmin Didot, 1858-1896.

Vol. 2 (1868)
Online View & Download – INHA

Basse de Violon, p. 286 – INHA

Vol. 4 (1884)
Online View & Download – INHA

Contrebasse, pp. 237-240 – INHA

Académie Française – InfoLC Authority (author)

Dictionnaire de l’Académie Française – Info

This is an official French dictionary that represents proper French vocabulary.

  • Le Dictionnaire de l’Académie Françoise Dedié au Roy. 1st ed. Paris, 1694

Vol. 1
Online View & Download – Gallica

Basse – Contre, vol. 1, p. 85 – Gallica 

[ signifies a bass voice at the time of printing, unable to locate entry for contre-basse instrument yet ]

  • Nouveau Dictionnaire de l’Académie Françoise Dedié au Roy. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1718

Vol. 1
Online View & Download – Internet Archve

Basse-Contre, p. 135 – Internet Archive 

[ refers to vocal bass, no “contre-basse” instrument yet ]

  • Le Dictionnaire de l’Académie Françoise. 3rd ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1740.

Vol. 1
Online View & Download – Gallica

Contre-Basse, Groſſe baſſe de violon, p. 359 – Gallica

[ “contre basse” instrument has arrived ]

  • Le Dictionnaire de l’Académie Françoise. 4th ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1762.

Vol. 1
Online View & Download – Gallica 

Basse Contre, p. 157 – Gallica 

[ designates a human bass voice ] 

Contre-Basse, Groſſe baſſe de violon, p. 387 – Gallica

Vol. 2
Online View & Download – Gallica

Violon, p. 942 – Gallica

[ signifies Violin that may appear in several functions, including (cit.) Une Baſſe de violon ]

Violoncelle, p. 943 – Gallica 

[ appropriate for the part of  “bass on violon,” cit. C’eſt proprement la baſſse du violon. ]

  • Le Dictionnaire de l’Académie Françoise. 5th ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1798.

Vol. 1
Online View & Download – Gallica 

Contre-Basse, Grosse basse de violon, p. 305 – Gallica

  • Dictionnaire de l’Académie Française. 6th ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1835.

Vol. 1
Online View & Download – Gallica 

Contre-Basse, Grosse basse de violon, p. 398 – Gallica

  • Dictionnaire de l’Académie Française. 7th ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1879.

Vol. 1
Online View & Download – Gallica 

Contre-Basse, Grosse basse, p. 398 – Gallica

  • Dictionnaire de l’Académie Française. 8th ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1932-1935.

Online Search Engine – Dictionnaire de l’Académie Française 

ContrebasseDictionnaire de l’Académie Française
ContrebassisteDictionnaire de l’Académie Française 

[ should you wish to retrieve these entries yourself, please go to the Online Search Engine, select the edition from the right pane and search “contrebasse.” The online Dictionnarie offers 4th, 8th and 9th edition access ]

  • Dictionnaire de l’Académie Française. 9th ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1992 – work in progress – Info

Online Search Engine – Dictionnaire de l’Académie Française 

ContrebasseDictionnaire de l’Académie Française 

[ an important entry as it describes the evolution of “Contrebasse” term in Frnech language: from a “low voice” in 16th century to stringed instrument designations in 18th century (borroved from Italians) that remain to this day ]

[ The publication of 9th edition started in 1992 with separate volumes (see Info), however it was converted later to a digital format that offers A-S entries so far. The remainder of entries is still being processed at this time ]

Bailey, Nathan (  -1742) – InfoLC Authority

  • An Universal Etymological English Dictionary. 4th edition ( with large Additions).  London: Printed for J. Darby, A. Bettesworth, F. Fayram, J. Osborn, T. Longman [and 6 others], 1728.

Online View & Download – Google Books

BASSO Viola, col. BA – Google Books
BASSO Violin, col. BA – Google Books
VIOLONE, col. VI – Gooogle Books

Brande, William Thomas (1788-1866) – InfoLC Authority

  • Dictionary of Science, Literature & Art. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1853.

Online View & Download – MOA

Contrabasso, p. 279 – MOA
Violone, p. 1308 – MOA

Croker, Temple Henry (1730-c1790) – InfoLC Authority

  • The Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. In Which The Whole Circle of Human Learning is Explained, And The Difficulties Attending The Acquisition of Every Art, Whether Liberal or Mechanical, are Removed, In The Most Easy And Familiar Manner. 3 vols. London: Printed for the Authors, 1764-1766. – Info

Although the title indicates a Dictionary, some sources class this work as an encyclopaedia as well.

Online View & Download – Check Individual Entries for each Volume.

Bass, col. BAS, vol. 1 : Counter Bass  – Hathitrust [ Top of the page – right side ]
Bass-Viol, col BAS, vol. 1 – Hathitrust
Violoncello, col. VIP, vol. 3 – Hathitrust

[ “half the size of the common bass-violin” ]

Violone, col. VIP, vol. 3 – Hathitrust

[ “double baſs, almoſt twice as big as the common baſs-violin” ]

[ these two entries leave an impression that the “bass-violin” is a middle sized instrument that stands between violoncello and Double Bass/Violone ]

[ cited also under ABP General Encyclopaedias ]

Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti – Info

  • DBI Treccani – stands for Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani – Online 2012 – InfoLC Authority (author) 

Published by Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti better known as “Treccani,” named after the Giovanni Treccani , an industrialists who sponsored an institute resposnible for its publication.    

Online View – Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani  

Contrabasso – Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani

Flathe, Philipp Jakob (1735-1810) – InfoLC Authority

  • Nouveau Dictionnaire François-Allemand Et Allemand-François: Compoſé ſur Les Dictionnaires De L’académie Françoise, de M. l’Abbé Alberti de Villeneuve, & les meilleurs Vocabularies des deux Nations, Enrichi De Tous Les Termes Propres Des Sciences & Des Art, comme auſſi des expreſſions de nouvelle création.  Ouvrage Complet, Exact, Utile & Même Indispensable Pour Tous Ceux Qui Veulent Traduire & Lire Dans L’une & L’autre Langue. 5 vols. Leipzig: Weidmann, 1798.

Vol. 1
Online View & Download – Manuscriptorium

Baſſe, p. 101 – Manuscriptorium

 [ cites among others une baſſe de violon ]

Contre-baſſe, p. 219 – Manuscriptorium

[ refers to Baß; große Baßgeige ]

Viole, p. 1246 – Manuscriptorium 

[ refers to Viole, Baßgeige, Violon ]

  • Neues Deutsch-Französisches und Französisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch : Durchgängig auf das genaueste berichtiget und mit allen Kunstwörtern, neuesten Ausdrücken und Redensarten beyder Sprachen über alle bis jetzt in Deutschland erschienenen Wörterbücher bereichert. Ein zum Lesen und Uebersetzen in beyden Sprachen nützliches und unentbehrliches Werk. Leipzig: Weidmann, 1798.

Vol. 5 (T-Z)
Online View & Download – Manuscriptorium

Violon, p. 4526 – Manuscriptorium

[ refers to eine große Baßgeige, baſſe de violon ]

Furetière, Antoine (1619-1688) – InfoLC Authority

  • Dictionnaire Universel, Contenant Généralement Les Mots Français, Tant Vieux Que Modernes, Et Les Termes De Toutes Les Sciences Et Des Arts, Etc. [with a Preface by P. Bayle.]. À la Haye, et à Rotterdam, 1690. – Info

[ Although the work was published in Rotterdam, it is classed here under Paris in Geographical listing column, since intended for French audience ]

Online Portal Search – Dictionnaire Universel

BasseDictionnaire Universel
Basse-Contre Dictionnaire Universel

Gottsched, Johann Christoph (1700-1766) – InfoLC Authority     

  • Handlexicon oder Kurzgefaßtes Wörterbuch der Schönen Wissenschaften und Freyen Künste. Leipzig, Gaspar Fritsch, 1760.

Online View & Download – MDZ

Baſſe double, col. 192 – MDZ

[ designates a Dopelte Baßgeige that sounds an octave lower then the common French Baßgeige ]

Contrabaß, col. 429 – MDZ

[ designates a 32 foot organ register ]

Violone, col. 1619 – MDZ 

[ describes a 6 stringed G Violone with two tuning variants ]

[ curiously no entry for Violoncello? ]

Hebenstreit, Wilhelm (1774-1854) – Info – LC Authority

  • Wissenschaftlich-literarische Encyklopädie der Aesthetik : Ein etymologisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der ästhetischen Kunstsprache. Wien: Carl Gerold, 1843.

The title indicates Wörterbuch thus listed here under general dictionaries.

Online View – Manuscriptorium

Contrabaß, p. 156 – Manuscriptorium
Contraviolon oder Contrebasse, p. 158 – Manuscriptorium
Contre – Violon, p. 158 – Manuscriptorium
Violone, p. 854 – Manuscriptorium

[ cited also with General Encyclopaedias ]

Hübner, Johann (1668-1731) – InfoLC Authority

  • Curieuses Und Reales Natur Kunst Berg Gewerck Und Handlungs-Lexicon: Darinnen … Die in Der Physic Medicin, Botanic, Etc. Gebräuchliche Termini Technici Gerichten Vorfallende … Unentbehrliche Wörter … Deutlich Erkläret … Alles Dergestalt Eingerichtet, Dass Man Dieses Als Einen Andern Theil Des Realen Staats-Conversations Und Zeitungs-Lexici … Gebrauchen Kan. Leipzig: Son of J.F. Gleditsch, 1731.

Online View & Download – Internet Archive

Geigen, col. 818 – Internet Archive
Violon, eine Grosse Bassgeige, col. 2135 – Internet Archive

  • Curiöses Und Reales Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerck Und Handlungs-Lexicon: Welches Als Der Zweite Theil Des Realen Staats-, Conversations Und Zeitungslexici Mit Grossem Nutzen Zu Gebrauchen. Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Gleditsch, 1776.

Online View & Download – Google Books 

Violon, col. 2395 – Google Books

Jablonski, Johann Theodor (1654-1731) – InfoVIAF Authority

  • Allgemeines Lexicon der Künste und Wissenschaften. [“Allgemeines LEXICI der Künste und Wissenschaften”]. 2 vols. Königsberg ; und Leipzig: bey Johann Heinrich Hartung, 1748.

Online View – Manuscriptorium

Viola da Gamba / Contrabassa da Gamba, p. 1284 – Manuscriptorium
Violon (Grosse Baß Geige), p. 1284 – Manuscriptorium

Jagemann, Christian Joseph (1735-1804) – InfoLC Authority

  • Nuovo Vocabolario Italiano – Tedesco E Tedesco – Italiano. Disposto con ordine etimologico da Cristiano Giuseppe Jagemann socio corrispondente dell’ Accademia Fiorentina. Lipsia: Sigefredo Lebrecht Crusius, 1799.

Online View, Index Page, Both Volumes – SBB

Vol 1. (Frst Part) Italian – German
Online View & Download – SBB 

Contrabbaſſo – col. 334 – SBB 

[ refers to der Baß, Die Baßgeige ]

Violoncello, col 1444 – SBB

[ refers to Chello, Violoncell ]

Violone, col. 1444 – SBB

[ refers to Baßgeige, der Baß ]

[ the last two entries appear consecutively and differentiate between Violone and Violoncello in German translation ]

Vol 2. (Second Part) German – Italian
Online View & Download – SBB 

Viole – Baß-Viole, col. 1361 – SBB 

[ refers to Violone ] 

Viole – Violon, col. 1361 – SBB

[ refers to Violone ]

Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784) – InfoLC Authority

  • A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words Are Deduced from Their Originals, and Illustrated in Their Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers : to Which Are Prefixed, a History of the Language, and an English Grammar. 2 vols. London: Printed by W. Strahan, for J. and P. Knapton ; T. and T. Longman ; C. Hitch and L. Hawes ; A. Millar ; and R. and J. Dodsley, 1755.

Info1Info 2 [ a predecessor to Oxford English Dictionary ]

Vol. 1 (1755)
Online View – Pbc-Gda [ Title Page – Pbc-Gda ]

Base-Viol, col. BAS – Pbc-Gda

[ cit. “ufually written baſs-viol” – and yet, in the Bass-Viol entry it points back to “base” ]

Bass-Viol, col. BAS (scan p. 212) – Pbc-Gda

[ points to Base-Viol ]

[ The second Volume offers brief entries on Viol, Violin and Violoncello, yet nothing on Violone or similar stringed bass instruments ]

  • A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words Are Deduced from Their Originals, and Illustrated in Their Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers. to Which Are Prefixed, a History of the Language and and English Grammar. London: Printed for J.F. and C. Rivington, L. Davis, T. Payne and Son, W. Owen, T. Longman, B. Law [and 20 others] in London, 1785.

Vol. 1 (1785)
Online View & Download – Internet Archive 

Base-Viol, col. BAS – Internet Archive

[ cit. “ufually written baſs-viol” – and yet, in the Bass-Viol entry it points back to “base” ]

Bass-Viol, col. BAS – Internet Archive

[ points to Base-Viol ]

[ This instrument may well be an 8 foot bass viol. Unfortunately there are no entries under “Contra” or “Double” that refer to any stringed instruments. ]

[ The bass entries in 1875 edition are a reprint from the 1755 edition, only a typeset differs slightly ]

Ménage, Gilles (1613-1692) – InfoLC Authority

  • Dictionnaire Étymologique, Ou Origines De La Langue Françoise, Par M. Ménage. Nouvelle Édition… Avec Les Origines Françoises De M. De Caseneuve ; Un Discours Sur La Science Des Étymologies, Par Le P. Besnier,… Et Une Liste Des Noms De Saints Qui Paroissent Éloignez De Leur Origine… Par M. L’abbé Chastelain. Paris: Jean Anisson, 1694.

Online View & Download – Gallica

Viole, Violon, p. 720 – Gallica

Millin, Aubin-Louis (1759-1818) – InfoLC Authority

  • Dictionnaire Des Beaux Arts. 3 vols. Paris: Crapelet-Desray, 1806.

Vol 1. (1806)
Online View & Download – INHA

Basse de Violon, vol. 1, p. 121 – INHA
Basseto, vol. 1, pp. 121-122 – INHA
Bassista, vol. 1, p. 122 – INHA
Contre-basse, vol. 1, p. 343 – INHA

OED – Oxford English Dictionary (1888-1928) – Info

Murray, James Augustus Henry (1837-1915) [ editor ] – Info

  • A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by the Philological Society. 1st ed. 10 vols. (some vols. divided in parts) Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1888-1928. Info

[ The title of this work was changed later to what we know today as a venerable Oxfor English Dictionary. The above title was the riginal one that stood on the first edition printed from 1888 to 1928 ]

Vol. III (1897) D-E
Online View & Download – Internet Archive

Double-bass, p. 614 – Internet Archive

Vol. X Part II (1928) V-Z
Online View & Download – Internet Archive

Violon, p. 226 – Internet Archive

[ earlier usage with text examples from 16th and 17th century ]

Violone, p. 226 – Internet Archive

[ “the Double Bass Viol” The entry presents text examples from 18th and 19th century literature ]

ÖBL – Institut Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon und biographische Dokumentation – LC Authority

[ Incorporates and enlarges: Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950 – Info ]

  • ÖBL Online [ Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon ] 2011 – Info

This database is supported by the Austrian Academy of Sciences

Online View – Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon Online

For bass related searches please try “Kontrabassist” or “Kontrabaß” queries.

Sommer, Johann Gottfried (1782-1848) – InfoLC Authority

  • Neuestes Wort Und SacherklärendesVerteutschungswörterbuch Aller Jener Aus Fremden Sprachen Entlehnten Wörter, Ausdrücke Und Redensarten, Welche Die Teutschen Bis Jetzt, in Schriften Und Büchern Sowohl Als in Der Umgangssprache, Noch Immer Für Unentbehrlich Und Unersetzlich Gehalten Haben: Ein Höchstnützliches Handbuch Für Geschäftsmänner, Zeitungsleser, Und Für Alle Gebildete Menschen Überhaupt. Prag: Johann Gottfired Calve, 1814.

Online View & Download – Google BooksManuscriptorium

Bassecontre, p. 66 – Google Books
Contrabaß, p. 125 – Google Books
Contraviolon, p. 127 – Google Books
Contrebaß, p. 127 – Google Books
Violon, p. 512 – Google Books
Violonist, p. 512 – Google Books

  • Neuestes Wort- und sacherklärendes Verteutschungswörterbuch aller jener aus fremden Sprachen entlehnten Wörter, Ausdrücke und Redensarten, welche die Teutschen bis jetzt, in Schriften und Büchern sowohl als in der Umgangssprache, noch immer für unentbehrlich und unersetzlich gehalten haben; verbunden mit einer Erklärung auch der weniger bekannten Kunstwörter und andern Ausdrücke der teutschen Sprache. Ein höchstnützliches Handbuch für Geschaftsmänner, Zeitungsleser, und alle gebildete Menschen überhaupt / von Johann Gottfries Sommer, Professor am Conservatorium der Tonkunst zu Prag. 2nd extended edition. Prag: Bedřich Rudolf Tempský, Johann Gottfired Calve 1819.

Online View & Download – Google Books

Bassecontre, p. 60 – Google Books
Contrabaß, p. 118 – Google Books
Contrebaß, p. 119 – Google Books
Violon, p. 527 – Google Books
Violonist, p. 527 – Google Books   Manuscriptorium

Trichter, Valentin (c1685-c1750) – InfoLC Authority

[ this name was also used as a pseudonym by Christian Ehrenfried Seifert von Tennecker (1770-1839) ]

  • Curiöses Reit-, Jagd-, Fecht-, Tanz Oder Ritter-Exercitien-Lexicon. Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Gleditsch, 1742.

Onlne View & Download – DTAInternet ArchivesMDZ

Baß – “Violon” entry, col. 125 – DTA

[ 16 and 32 foot organ register, n.b. left column ]

(in text) – Viola da Gamba, Baſſe de Violon, col. 126 – DTAMDZ
(in text) – Baſſe double oder Double Basse, ein doppelter Baß Violon, col. 126 – DTA

[ these entries stand under the Baſſe-Taile oder Second Taile heading at the right column. The order of citations rougly follows the hierarchy from smaller to biger stringed bass instruments, while it still ends with Baſſe Petite which obviously is not the lowest of the named instruments ] 

Die groſſe Viola da gamba oder Contrabaſſa da gamba, col. 2272 – DTA

[ citation: “Die groſſe Viola da gamba oder Contrabaſſa da gamba wird von den meiſten durch und durch per quartam geſtimmet” – right column upper corner ]

Vittori, Girolamo (16th -17th c.) – InfoVIAF / DNB Authority

  • Tesoro De Las Tres Lenguas Española, Francesa Y Italiana. =: Thrésor Des Trois Langues, Espagnole, Françoise Et Italienne : Auquel Est Contenue L’explication De Toutes Les Trois Respectivement L’une Par L’autre : Divisé En Trois Parties. A Genève: De l’imprimerie de Jaques Crespin, 1644.

Online View & Download – Google Books

Vihuela de arco, …, o il Violone d’archeto, p. 561 – Google Books
Violones, p. 562 – Google BooksManuscriptorium  

[ undefined term in plural that likely represents all viols ]

Webster, Noah (1758-1843) – InfoLC Authority 

Webster Dictionary – Info | 1st edition (1828) – Info 

  • American Dictionary of the English Language: Intended to Exhibit, I. the Origin, Affinities and Primary Signification of English Words, As Far As They Have Been Ascertained : II. the Genuine Orthography and Pronunciation of Words, According to General Use, or to Just Principles of Analogy : III Accurate and Discriminating Definitions, with Numerous Authorities and Illustrations . New York: S. Converse, 1828.

Vol. 1 (1828) A-Ivy
Online View & Download – Internet Archive 

Base-Viol, col. BAS – Internet Archive

[ points to Viol. ]

Bass-Viol, col. BAS – Internet Archive

[ points to Base-Viol (above) ]

Basso-Violino, col. BAS – Internet Archive

[  cit. “is the basse of the base-viol” ]

[ pages non numerated, thus a precise citation would be difficult ]

Vol. 2 (1828) I – Z
Online View & Download – Internet Archive

Viol, col. VIO – Internet Archive

[ cit. “The largest of all is the Base-Viol” ] 

Violono, col. VIR – Internet ArchiveMShaffer

[ cit. “a double basse” ]

Whitney, William Dwight (1827-1894) – InfoLC Authority  

The Century Dictionary – Info

  • The Century Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language. New York: Century Co, 1889-1891.

Vol. 2, Part 6 (1889) Deflect – Drool
Online View & Download – Internet Archive

Double Bass, p. 1742 – Internet Archive

Vol. 6, Part 23 (1891) Trust – Vysar
Online View & Download – Internet Archive

Violone, p. 6762 – Internet Archive

Page Development Assistance

ABP is grateful on any information that may widen the scope of this listing. Should you know of any other dictionary that may fit the criteria of this bibliography, please contact ABP and your effort will be credited here.

Created by Igor Pecevski


Posted: June 7, 2019