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Treatises

Welcome to the Treatises page, a bibliographic reference tool designed to facilitate study of early double basses and related bass instruments. Presented is a complete index of all period documents from 16th to 18th century that are used to discuss and research early double basses in scholarly articles and history books. By following an index link you will be presented with a full bibliographic citation of a treatise and along all the available citations of relevant bass entries located there. In most cases the full access of a complete manual in digital scan will be available, as well as a direct link to a specific page, or an image of interest.

For your benefit the main index directory is also divided in three separate listings with Alphabetical, Chronological and Geographical classifications. This division was made in order to offer an easy overview of authors’ names, different periods and geographic locations where these these works have originated. In addition, for many of the later popular manuals (e.g, Albrechtsberger, L. Mozart and Quantz) all extant editions have been carefully noted and indexed, so a quick comparison of different prints and their subsequent changes is instantly available.

Lastly, due to a great diversity of treatise types and a complex system of early bass nomenclature, a need was established to clearly define all criteria applied in their indexing and systematization. For further details on standards and methodologies applied here please follow to a separate heading of Classification Criteria where you will find them further corroborated.


Chronological Listing

16th Century
17th Century
18th Century
19th Century

Geographical Listing 1

Austria
Kremsmünster
Bohemia
Prague
France
Paris
Germany
Augsburg
Berlin
Breslau
Chemnitz
Dresden
Erfurt
Frankfurt a. M.
Frankfurt a. S.
Freiburg
Hamburg
Leipzig
Nürnberg
Schwäbisch Hall
Tübingen
Ulm
Wittemberg
Wolfenbüttel
Netherlands
Amsterdam
Haerlem
Poland
Wrocław (Breslau)
Switzerland
Basel

Index Map

Note 1.     Geographical listing designates the place of publication, which in some instances may differ from the main residence of the author. The listed cities however may still offer a good reference on a type of instrument used in their region at the time of publication.

Note 2.     Organge p represents Predecessor instruments as defined in the Classification Criteria heading

Note 3.     Violet bvn represents Bass Violin as defined in the Classification Criteria heading







Main Index



Anonymous

  • Principij di Musica Generali, Contenti Anche Tutte le Sacle per Canto, Cembalo, Violino, Viola, Violoncello, Contrabasso, Oboe e Flauto. n.p.: n.p., [1787]

Citation in Lichtenthal, Peter. Dizionario e Bibliografia della Musica. Vol. 4. Milano: Antonio Fontana, 1826. p. 159 [ source Google Books ]




Agazzari, Agostino (1578-1640) – Info

  • Del Sonare Sopra’l Basso con Tutti li Stromenti e dell’usu Loro nel Conserto. Siena: Deomnico Falcini, 1607.

Online View & Download – Gallica  —  Online Translation

Violone entry – Il Violone come parte grave procede gravemente, sostenendo con la sua dolce risonanza l’armonia dell’altre parti, trattenendosi più che si può, nelle corde grosse, toccando spessio i contrabassi. p. 9




Agricola, Martin (1486-1556) – Info

  • Musica Instrumentalis Deudsch: 1. Ausg. Wittemberg 1528.

Online View & Download – Internet Archive 1Internet Archive 2Internet Archive 3

Groß Geigen – Bassus tuning entry, p. 91

Groß oder Kleine Gaigen entry, p. 92

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 15, “Perhaps the eraliest information about Groß Geigen Bassus with the tuning G1 – C – F – A – d – g in German music can be found with Agricola”

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 82, Table of all treatises featruing G1 – C – F – A – d – g tuning

  • Musica Instrumentalis Deudsch: 4. Ausg., Wittemberg 1545.

Online View & Download – Internet Archive 1 [ N.B. the same document as in “Internet Archive 1” link for 1528 edition above ]




Albrechtsberger, Johann Georg (1736-1809) – Info enInfo de

  • Gründliche Anweisung Zur Composition; Mit Deutlichen Und Ausführlichen Exempeln, Zum Selbstunterrichte, Erläutert; Und Mit Einem Anhange: Von Der Beschaffenheit Und Anwendung Aller Jetzt Üblichen Musikalischen Instrumente. Leipzig: Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf, 1790.

Online View & Download – Internet ArchiveMDZ 1MDZ 2MDZ 3MDZ 4

Der Violon oder Contrabaß entry, Anhang, Geiginstrumente, No. 8, p. 421-422

Other online sources – MDZ 1MDZ 2MDZ 3MDZ 4

Scala für den Violon, No. 8, p. 436

Other online sources – MDZ 1MDZ 2MDZ 3MDZ 4

  • Sämmtliche Schriften über Generalbaß, Harmonie-Lehre, und Tonsetzkunst : zum Selbstunterricht ; Systematisch geordnet, mit zahlreichen, aus dessen mündlichen Mittheilungen geschöpften Erläuterungs-Beyspielen, und einer kurzen Anleitung zum Partitur-Spiel, nebst Beschreibung aller jetzt gebräuchlichen Instrumente. 3rd bd. Vienna: Anton Strauss, [1826]

Online View & Download – MDZ

Der Violon oder Contrabaß entry, p. 185-186

  • Sämmtliche Schriften über Generalbaß, Harmonie-Lehre, und Tonsetzkunst : zum Selbstunterricht ; Systematisch geordnet, mit zahlreichen, aus dessen mündlichen Mittheilungen geschöpften Erläuterungs-Beyspielen, und einer kurzen Anleitung zum Partitur-Spiel, nebst Beschreibung aller jetzt gebräuchlichen Instrumente. 3rd bd. Vienna: Anton Strauss, [1830]

Online View & Download – MDZ

Der Violon oder Contrabaß entry, p. 185-186

  • Sämmtliche Schriften über Generalbaß, Harmonie-Lehre, und Tonsetzkunst : zum Selbsunterrichte ; Systhematisch geordnet, mit zahlreichen, aus dessen mündlichen Mittheilungen geschöpften Erläuterungs-Beispielen, und einer kurzen Anleitung zum Partitur-Spiel, nebst Beschreibung aller bis jetzt gebräuchlichen Instrumente. 3rd bd. Vienna; Tobias Haslinger, 1837

Online View & Download – MDZ

Der Violon oder Contrabaß entry, Geiginstrumente, p. 165-167

  • Methods of Harmony, Figured Base, and Composition, Adapted for Self-instruction, by John George Albrechtsberger. Translated from the last German ed., as Augmented and Arranged by His Pupil, the Chevalier von Seyfried, with the remarks of M. Choron. Translated from the last Paris ed., by Arnold Merrick. London: R. Cocks & co., 1834.

The Double Bass entry, p. 247 [ check 1855 edition below for online view ]

  • Methods of Harmony, figured base, an Compositions, Adapted for Self-Instruction / by John George Albrechtsberger ; Translated From the Last German ed., as Augm. and by His Pupil, the Chevalier von Seyfried, With the Remarks of M. Choron ; Translated from the last Paris ed., by Arnold Merrick. 2 vols. London: R. Cocks, [1835-1844] Record Link

The Double Basse (violon or contra bass) entry, no. 202, p. 279 [ source hathitrust.org ]

  • J.G. Albrechtsberger’s Collected Writings on Thorough-Bass, Harmony, and Composition, for Self Instruction : With Many Explanatory Examples. London: Novello, Ewer and Co., 1855.

Online View & Download – Internet Archive – Document Download UR Sibley

The Double Bass entry, p. 247




Banchieri, Adriano (1568-1634) – Info

  • Conclusioni Nel Suono dell’organo. Bologna: per gli heredi di Gio. Rossi, 1609.

Online View & Download – Internet Archive

Violone in Contrabasso entry [indicates tuning], p. 53

Violone da Gamba entry [indicates tuning], p. 54

“Violone in concerto” citation, p. 69

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 40, “Adriano Banchieri (p.53) calls the deepest string of the Violone in Contrabasso” a “Basso con D sotto Gravissimo”. This desgination would never be used for any ordinary bass instrument.”

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 82, Table of all treatises featruing G1 – C – F – A – d – g tuning [ Banchieri Violone da Gamba]




Beyer, Johann Samuel (1669-1744) – Info

  • Primae Lineae Musicae Vocalis: Das Ist: Kurtze, Leichte, Gründliche und Richtige Anweisung, Freiberg: Elias Nicolaus Kuhfus, 1703.

Online View & Download – Google

Violone entry, Appendix (Musical Terms)




Bismantova, Bartolomeo (pre 1675 – after 1694) – Info

  • Compendio Musicale, Ferrara : n.p., 1677 – Record Link

Chapter – Regola de Suonare il Contrabasso, o Violone Grande

[describes tuning and ambitus]

  • Compendio Musicale, supplement, Ferrara : n.p., 1694

Chapter – Regola de Suonare il Contrabasso, o Violone Grande

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 106




Bonanni, Filippo (1638-1725) – Info frInfo de

  • Gabinetto Armonico Pieno D’istromenti Sonori Indicati. Roma: Nella stamperìa di G. Placho, 1722.

Online View & Download – ULB Düsseldorf Internet Archive

Violone entry, Illustration LVII, p. 101

Violone text entry, No. LVII, p. 102




Covarrubias, Sebastián de (1539-1613) – Info

  • Tesoro de la Lengua Castellana o Española. Madrid, 1611

Online View – FDSevilla

Violones entry, p. 74

Citation in Gándara, Xosé Crisanto. “Origins and Development of Double Bass in Spain”, Geschichte, Bauweise Und Spieltechnik Der Tiefen Streichinstrumente. Blankenburg: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein, 2004. p. 27

  • Tesoro de la Lengua Castellana o Española. Madrid, 1674

Online View – BVCervantes

Violones entry, fol. 209v – Online View

[ most likely a reprint ]

* * *

Violón at Wiki.es – General Spanish musical definition from 16th to 18th centuries




Doni, Giovanni Battista (c.1593-1647) – Info

  • Annotazioni Sopra il Compendio Deg̕eneri, e Dem̕odi Della Musica. In Roma: Nella stamparia dA̕ndrea Fei, 1640.

Online View & Download – Internet ArchiveMuseo Galileo

Sopra il Violone Panarmonico chapter entry, p. 314 -336

Violone Panarmonico citations – Online Views p. 18p. 69p. 289p. 292

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 33, “in 1640 (Doni) describes the difference between the type he names — the Violone Panarmonico and the usual Violone.”




Eisel, Johann Philipp (1698- after 1756) – Info

  • Musicus Autodidaktos : Oder der Sich Selbt Informirende Musicus, Erfurt: Finke, 1738

Online View & Download – MDZGoogle

Von Bass – Violon index entry, Sect. II, Cap. II, Num. VI, p. 4

Von Bass – Violon text entry, Sect. II, Cap. II, Num. VI, pp. 47-51

  • Der Sich Selbst Informirende Musicus: Oder Gründliche Anweisung zu der Vocal- und Instrumental-Music, Welche Über 24 Sorten … Instrumente Enthält. 2nd ed. Augsburg : Lotter, 1762.

Online View & Download – MDZ

Von Bass – Violon index entry, Sect. II, Cap. II, Num. VI, Index Citation

Von Bass – Violon text entry, Sect. II, Cap. II, Num. VI, pp. 29-11 – Online View




Erhard, Laurentius (1598-1669) – Info

  • Compendium Musices Latino-Germanicum. Frankfurt: Kempferianis, 1660.

Online View & Download – GoogleMDZ

Violone citation entry, p. 128




Falck, Georg (1659-1694) – Info

  • Idea Boni Cantoris, Nürnberg: Gedruckt bey Wolfgang Morris Endier, 1688.

Online View & Download – MDZ — Online View in Color MDZ

Violon tuning entry, p. 189

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 82, Table of all treatises featturing G1 – C – F – A – d – g tuning




Fuhrmann, Martin Heinrich (1669-1745) – Info

  • Musicalischer-Trichter. Franckfurt, an der Spree, 1706.

Online View & Download – SLUB Dresden

Violone, Bass – Geige entry, Capitel X. p. 93




Galeazzi, Francesco (1758-1819) – Info deInfo en     

  • Elementi Teorico-pratici di Musica. 2 vols, Roma: Stamperia Pilucchi Cracas, 1791-6.

Online View & Download – GoogleIC vol 1IC vol 2

Controbasso entry, vol. 2, no. 128, p. 312




Ganassi, Silvestro (1492-1550) – Info  p 

  • Regola Rubertina: Regola Che Insegna Sonar De Viola D’archo Tastada. Venetia: Ganassi, 1542.

Document Download – IMSLP

Online View & Download – Internet Archive

Violone coverage, Chapter “Modo de’laccordario solo” Cap. VIII, p. 8 [ pagination irregular ]

[ describes an early type of violone covering bass register ]

Tunings description, [p. 14] – Tunings staff view [p. 15-18] – Contrabasso citation [p. 26]

Citation in Erodi (2009), p. 14, Note 47, “Giovanni Maria Lanfranco, Hans Gerle, Martin Agricola and Silvestro Ganassi mention bass violins as well, but they use ambiguous terminology. Therefore, Jambe de Fer’s account counts as the first definite description of the clear term ‘bas de   violon’ as a reference to the bass violin.”

Citation in Erodi (2009) p. 15 “No sixteenth-century treatise provides an illustration of a bass violin that matches Gaudenzio Ferrari‘s image (Saronno Cathedral, 1535), which is the earliest known iconographical representation of the instrument. Sebastian Virdung, Giovanni Maria            Lanfranco, Ludovico Zacconi, and Silvestro Ganassi do not depict bass violins.”

Citation in Planyavsky (1998) p. 1 “Sivestro Gannasi used term violone synoymously with viola da gamba, including a violone with the adjectival suffix c o n t r a b a s s o

  • Lettione Seconda pvr della Prattica Di Sonare il Violone D’arco da Tasti. Venetia: Stampata per lauttore proprio, 1543.

Document Download – IMSLP

[ describes an early type of violone covering bass register ]




Gehot, Joseph (1756-1820) – Info

  • Gehot, Joseph. Complete Instructions for Every Musical Instrument: Containing a Treatise on Practical Music in General to Which Is Added the Scale or Gamut for Thirty Five Different Instruments. London: Dalmaine, [1780]. Other sources 1790. Basel Library Holding

 [Most likely one of those Thirty Five Different Instruments should be double bass too. Unfortunately no online scan of this work has been located to prove or disprove bass entry]




Gengenbach, Nikolaus (1539-1636) – Info

Online View & Download – Google

Violone Grosse Baßgeige entry, p. 150




Gerle, Hans (1500-1570) – Info  p 

  • Musica Teusch, auf die Instrument der Grossen unnd Kleinen Geygen, auch Lautten. Nuremberg, 1532.

Online View & Download – DSB

Grossen Geygen illustration, p. 13

Citation in Erodi (2009), p. 14, Note 47, “Giovanni Maria Lanfranco, Hans Gerle, Martin Agricola and Silvestro Ganassi mention bass violins as well, but they use ambiguous terminology.   Therefore, Jambe de Fer’s account counts as the first definite description of the clear term ‘bas de   violon’ as a reference to the bass violin.

Citation in Meier (1979), p. 30-31, Table of Historical Bass Tunings, “Gerle, 1546 (3rd ed.), A1, D, G, H, e, a ”




Hiller, Johann Adam (1728-1804) – Info

  • Anweisung zum Violinspiel für Schulen und zum Selbstunterrichte, Nebst einem Kurzegefaßten Lexicon der Fremden Wörter und Bennenungen der Musik. Leipzig: Bretitkofischen Buchhandlung, 1792.

Online View & Download – MDZ

Violon (Violone Contrabasso) entry, Drittes Kapitel, No. 3, p. 3-4

Violone Entry, Anhang – Fremden Wörter und Bennenungen, p. 86




Hizler, Daniel (1576-1635) – Info 1 deInfo 2 de  [spelled also Hitzler and Hisler]

  • Newe Musica, Oder Singkunst : Zu Fürderlichem Und Doch Gründlichem Unterricht Der Jugendt. Tübingen: D. Werlin, 1628. Record Link in Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin

Baß Geigen entry, p. 109-111 [ online source not located at the present ]

Citation in Otterstedt, Annette. “Consort bass – Kontrabass”, Geschichte, Bauweise und Spieltechnik Der Tiefen Streichinstrumente. Blankenburg: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein, 2004. p. 106 [indicating Geigenbasse and Gambenbasse tunings] Online Snippet

Citation in Erodi (2009) p. 58, “Hitzler‘s C-F-c-g tuning represents a lower tuned bass violin, based on C instead of a Bb.”




Janowka, Thomas Balthasar (1669-1741) – Info

  • Clavis ad Thesaurum Magnae Artis Musicae. Praga: Gerogij Labaun, 1701 *

Online View – Vědecké knihovny v Olomouci

Violone entry, p. 322-323

* As  a thesaurus, also cross referenced in ABP Dictionaries




Judenkünig, Hans (c.1450-1526) – Info  p

  • Ain Schone Kunstliche Underweisung in Disem Büechlein Leychtlich Zu Begreyffen Den Rechten Grund Zu Lernen Auff Der Lautten Und Geygen. Wien: Hanns Singryener, 1523. Part Two

Online View and Downlaod – Internet ArchiveMDZ

A drawing depicting a standing player with bass viol type – Online View Internet ArchiveMDZ

Citation in Planyavsky (1984) p. 6-7     




Kircher, Athanasius S.J. (1602-1680) – Info  [ bass violin ]

  • Musurgia Universalis Sive Ars Magna Consoni et Dissoni in X. Libros Digesta; Bd. 1: Quà Universa Sonorum doctrina, & Philosophia, Musicaeque tam Theoricae, quam Practicae Scientia, Summa Varietate Traditur. Liber Sextus (Bk. 6), Roma: Haeredum Francisci Corbelletti, 1650.

Online View – ECHO — Document Download – IMSLP [choose Book 6]

Violone text entry, p. 486, “Chelys quam figura I in Iconismo VIII exhibet, maior dicitur vulgo Violone

N.B. the tuning featured for Figura III belongs to Chelys Hexachorda, not Violone (Chelys maioris)

Violone drawing, table “Iconismus VIII”, Fol. 487, designated “I. Figura / Chelys maioris”

The assumed tuning for “I. Figura / Chelys maioris” is G-d-a-e‘ which would put its lower register in the great octave starting a 5th above modern violoncello. An argument was presented that due to similarity of sizes with Accordo , featured as a modern bass sized instrument in Bonani’s treatise, the Kircher’s violone presented here should be much bigger and likely with G1-D-A-e tuning. Future research may show if there is some truth to this, yet for now we will assume an 8 foot register for this instrument as indicated in Erodi’s work.

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 84-85, presents an argument that this instrument belongs to the 16 foot range and is likewise a predecessor to later three string Italian tuning in A1 – D – G

Citation in Erodi (2009) p. 51, Table 2.1. “Table of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century violin tunings in treatises”, indicating Kircher’s Basso di Viola / Violone tuning

Citation in Erodi (2009) p. 57, “The tuning of the higher-pitched bass violin seems to have been either F-c-g-d‘ or G-d-a-e‘ …”

  • Philosophischer Extract und Auszug, aus deß Welt-berühmten Teutschen Jesuitens Athanasii Kircheri von Fulda Musurgia Universali. Schwäbisch Hall: Hans Reinh. Laidigen, 1662.

Online View – FHB

Baß-Violon entry, Liber III Organicus, No. 3 Von den geigen oder Violen, p. 109

Text: Chelys Major sonsten ein Baß-Violon genennet




Klein, Johann Joseph (1740-1823) – Info

  • Lehrbuch der Theoretischen Musik in Systematischer Ordnung Entworfen. Offenbach: André, [1800]

Online View & Download – Internet Archive

Der Violon entry, No. 312, p. 129

  • Lehrbuch der Theoretischen Musik in Systematischer Ordnung Entworfen. Leipzig un Gera: Wilhelm Heinsius, 1801.

Online View & Download – MDZ

Der Violon entry, No. 312, p. 129




Kobrich, Johann Anton (1714-1791) – Info

  • Praktisches Geig-Fundament, Das Sich Mehr in Zeichen Und Noten, Als in Vielen Ausgesinnten Erklärungen Für Schwächere Lehrlinge Leicht Ausgezeichnet: Worinn Das Violin, Alt-Viola, Bassetto und Violon in Sechserley Verstimmungen Mit 3. 4. und 5. Saiten auf Die Leichteste und Kürzeste Art Zu Erlernen Ist. Augsburg: Mathhäus Rieger Söhne, 1787. Record Link

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 138 – citiation “This work came out in the same year as the third edition of Mozart’s (L.) work, 1787, and it was likewise published in Augsburg. Kobrich names six double bass tunings” [ not available online ]




La Borde, Jean-Benjamin de (1734-1794) – Info

  • Essai Sur La Musique Ancienne Et Moderne, vol. 1, Paris: Pierres, 1780.

Online View & Download – Internet ArchiveBNPGallicaMDZNLS

Contrebasse text entry, p. 293

Contrebasse image entry, p. 309




Lafranco, Giovanni Maria (ca.1490-1545) – Info  p

  • Scintille di Musica. Brescia: Lodovico Britannico, 1533.

Online View & Download – GallicaDownload – IMSLP

Violoni : Basso strings citation, “Del Violoni da tasti & da Arco” heading, p. 142

Also discussed in Wasielewski, W. J. v. “Giov. Maria Lanfranco und Fetis : Eine Berichtigung.” Monatshefte für Musik-Geschichte. Jahrg. XI No. 1, 1879, pp. 3-6. (particulary p. 5) – Online View

N.B. Lafranco does not present exact tuning in defined pitches, thus what you see in Wasilevski is a reconstruction based on text analysis

Citation in Planyavsky (1984) p. 34-35 – Following on Wasilewski’s work, Planyavsky points to Lafranco’s two Bass Violone tunings starting with D and E respectively, where a bottom E string – an equivalent of our modern bottom E string – is for the first time mentioned.

Citation in Erodi (2009), p. 14, Note 47, “Giovanni Maria Lanfranco, Hans Gerle, Martin Agricola and Silvestro Ganassi mention bass violins as well, but they use ambiguous terminology. Therefore, Jambe de Fer’s account counts as the first definite description of the clear term ‘bas de violon’ as a reference to the bass violin.

Citation in Erodi (2009) p. 15 “No sixteenth-century treatise provides an illustration of a bass violin that matches Gaudenzio Ferrari‘s image (Saronno Cathedral, 1535), which is the earliest known iconographical representation of the instrument. Sebastian Virdung, Giovanni Maria Lanfranco, Ludovico Zacconi, and Silvestro Ganassi do not depict bass violins.”




Majer, Joseph Friedrich Bernhard Caspar [commonly J.F.B.C.] (1689-1768‏) – Info

  • Museum Musicum Theoretico-Practicum : das ist: Neu-eröffneter Theoretisch- und Praktischer Musik-Saal. Schwäbisch-Hall: Georg Michael Meier, 1732.

Online View & Download – MDZ

Violone entry, p. 80




Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm (1718-1795) – Info en – Info de

  • Historisch-kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik, 3 vols, Berlin: Gottlieb August Lange, 1756-78.

Online View & Downlaod – MDZ

Die Grosse Baßgeige oder Contraviolon citation, “Violinschule” chapter, Geiginstrumenten listing, vol. 3 (1757), p. 161




Mattheson, Johann (1681-1764) – Info

  • Das Neu-Eroffnete Orchestre. Hamburg: Benjamin Schiller, 1713.

Online View & Download –MDZ Google

Der Brummende Violone entry, Capitel III, No. 23, p. 285-6

Bass Cleff use for Violone, Capitel II, No. 7, p. 70-71

  • Der Vollkommene Capellmeister, Hamburg: Christian Herold, 1739

Online View & Download – MDZ Google

Violone entry, Vier und Zwanzigstes Capitel, Instrumenten, No. 89, p. 469




Megerle, Abraham (1607-1680) – Info de

  • Speculum Musico-Mortuale: Das ist: Musicalischer Todtenspiegel. n.p., 1672. *

Online View & Download – MDZU. Salzburg [contains transcribed text]

BaßGeige entry & drawing, p. 32 – MDZU. Salzburg

* Although the place of publication for Megerele’s treatise is not precisely established, here and for the sake of geographical classification it is listed under Salzburg. Megerle himslef was active both in Salzburg and Altötting (Bavaria, Germany), so the work may have originated in either of locations.




Merck, Daniel (1675-1717) – Info 

  • Compendium Musicae Instrumentalis Chelicae. Augsburg: Johann Christoph Wagner, 1695.

Online View & Download – MDZ

Bass-Geigen entries, Cap. VIII, 5th page

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 82, Table of all treatises featruing G1 – C – F – A – d – g tuning




Mersenne, Marin (1588-1648) – Info  [ bass violin ]

  • Harmonie Universelle, Seconde Partie, Paris: Pierre Ballard, 1637

Online View & Download – Gallica

Basse de Violon image & Tuning (Bb1 – F – c – g), Livre Qvatriesme : Des Instruments a Chordes, Proposition IIII, , p. 184

Citation in Erodi (2009) p. 60, “Undoubtedly, Marin Mersenne introduces the most unambiguous classification of the large bass violin. It is for this reason that he always refers to the bass violin with the same term basse de violon and also provides a picture of it. An image of the lower tuned bass violin from 1635 represents the earliest illustration of the bass violin with four strings within an organological treatise (Fig. 2.11).

Citation in Erodi (2009) p. 61, Figure 2.11. Basse de Violon (image) in Marin Mersenne‘s Harmonie Universelle, 1635.

Comparative Table of Terminology and Tunings in Erodi (2009) p. 51.

N.B. for the purpose of this listing only Lafranco and Marsenne feature tunings that start with contra Bb1 and thus reach to contra register decided for this listing. All other bass violins in Erodi’s listing fit the great octave and approximate the register of modern violoncello.




Mozart, Leopold (1719-1787) – Info enInfo de

For the sake of complete documentation French editions are also cited here, although in all probability they miss the section on period bass instruments. Also, at the present French editions are not indexed in Chronological and Geographical listing indexes.

  • Versuch Einer Gründlichen Violinschule: Entworfen Und Mit 4 Kupfertafeln Sammt Einer Tabelle Versehen. 1st ed. Augsburg: Johann Jacob Lotter, 1756. – Info enInfo de

Online View & Download – MDZGoogle

Der große Baß oder Violon – Violone entry, p. 3 – Online View

  • Grondig Onderwys in Het Behandelen Der Viool: Met 4 Konst-Plaaten En Een Tafel Van De Regelen Der Strykmanier Enz. Voorzien. Haerlem: Joannes Enschede, 1766. [after 1st edition]

[ Dutch edition of Violinschule ]

  • Méthode Raisonnée Pour Apprendre À Jouer Du Violon. Translated by Valentin Roeser. Paris: LeMenu, 1770. Record Link

Online View & Download – BDH

[ no entry on Contrabasse located ]

  • Gründliche Violinschule, Mit Vier Kupfertafeln Und Einer Tabelle. Zweyte Vermehrte Auflage. 2nd enlarged edition. Augsburg: Johann Jacob Lotter, 1770. Record Link

Cited in Violinschule wiki de

[ online scan not located ]

  • Leopold Mozarts, Hochfürstl. Salzburgischen Vice-Capellmeisters, Gründliche Violinschule, Mit Vier Kupfertafeln Und Einer Tabelle [Dritte vermehrte Auflage]. 3rd ed. Augsburg: Johann Jacob Lotter und Sohn, 1787.

Although desgnated as the 3rd edition, this publication is alsmost identical with the 2nd edition. Source Violinschule wiki de

Online View & Download – Internet ArchiveMDZ

Der große Baß – Il Contra Basso – Violon entry, p. 3 – Online View

  • Leopold Mozarts, Hochfürstl. Salzburgischen Vice-Capellmeisters, Gründliche Violinschule: Mit Vier Kupfertafeln Und Einer Tabelle: Vierte Auflage. 4th ed. Frankfurt und Leipzig: n.p., 1791.

Online View & Download – MDZ

Der große Baß – Il Contra Basso – Violon entry, p. 3

  • Leopold Mozarts, Hochfürstl. Salzburgischen Vice-Capellmeisters, Gründliche Violinschule: Mit Vier Kupfertafeln Und Einer Tabelle. Augsburg: Johann Jacob Lotter und Sohn, 1800.

Online View & Download – MDZ

Der große Baß – Il Contra Basso – Violon entry, p. 3

  • Méthode de Violin par L. Mozart. Edited by Michel Woldemar. Paris: Chez Pleyel, 1801.

Citation from the article: November, Nancy. “A French Edition of Leopold Mozart’s Violinschule (1756).” Deep South. v.2. n.3. Spring, 1996, Note 18.

Future research should determine if an entry on Violon or Contrabasso is preserved in this edition

  • Leopold Mozart’s Violinschule oder Anweisung die Violin zu spielen. Leipzig: C. F. Peters, 1817.

Online View & Download – MDZ

Der Violon (Violono) – Contrebaß entry, p. 1




Nassarre, Pablo (1650–1730) – Info

  • Escuela Música según la Práctica Moderna. Zaragoza, 1723/1724.

Onlibe View & Download – Google

Violon entry, p. 465

Citation in Gándara, Xosé Crisanto. “Origins and Development of Double Bass in Spain”, Geschichte, Bauweise Und Spieltechnik Der Tiefen Streichinstrumente. Blankenburg: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein, 2004. p. 32

Section on p. 32 covers the profile and use of Nassare’s Vihuela de Arco and Violon, likely Baxo de ViolónOnline Snippet




Panerai, Vincenzo (after 1750)

  • Principj Di Musica, Nei Quali Oltre Le Antiche E Solite Regole, Vi Sono Aggiunte Altre Figure Di Note, Schiarimento Di Chiavi, Scale Dei Tuoni, Lettura Alla Francese, Scale Semplici Delle Prime Regole Del Cimbalo, Violino, Viola, Violoncello, Contrabbasso, Oboe e Flaute. Venezia: Antonio Zatta, [c.1750]

Online View & Download – MDZ

Scala per imparare suonare il Contrabbasso entry, p. 10

  • Principj Di Musica, Nei Quali Oltre Le Antiche E Solite Regole, Vi Sono Aggiunte Altre Figure Di Note, Schiarimento Di Chiavi, Scale Dei Tuoni, Lettura Alla Francese, Scale Semplici Delle Prime Regole Del Cimbalo, Violino, Viola, Violoncello, Contrabasso, Oboe e Flaute. Firenze: Giovanni Chiari [1780].

Download Page – University of Rochester




Petri, Johann Samuel (1738-1808) – Info

  • Anleitung zur Praktischen Musik, Leipzig: J.G.I. Breitkopf, 1782.

Online View & Download – MDZ

Violone in ensemble plan, p. 188

Von Grossen Violon chapter entry, p. 456-9




Ponsing, Friedrich (18th to 19th c.)

Contra-Baß : 5 Saitig – citation in: Stradner, Gerhard. “Die Streichinstrumente in einem Traktat von Friedrich Ponsing, Wien (?) um 1800.” Alte Musik und Musikpädagogik / hrsg. von Hartmut Krones. Weimar: Böhlau, 1997, p. 33-42.




Praetorius, Michael (1571-1621) – Info

Syntagma MusicumInfo

  • Syntagma Musicum, De Organogrpahia, Band 2, Wolfenbüttel, 1619 – Index

Online View & Download of Original Print – Internet ArchiveMDZ

Online View & Download of 1884 Modern Font Reprint – Internet Archive 2

Tunings entries, Capitel III, Tabela Universalis : Aller Blasenden und besaiteten Instrumenten, p. 25-26 *

1. Gar Groß Basß-ViolViole da gamba Violen, p. 25 – Depiction at Table V, No 1

2. Groß Baß Viol de Gamba [ 3 tunings] – Viole da gamba Violen, p. 25 – Depiction at Table VI , No. 4

3. Klein Baß-Viol de Gamba [ 7 tunings ] – Viole da gamba Violen, p. 25 – Depiction at Table XX , No. 3

4. Groß Quint BassViole da braccio Geigen, p. 26 – Depiction at Table XXI , No. 6

* All four from above also available in 1884 modern font edition, p. 28-29 [ original p. 25-26 ] – Internet Archive 2

Text entries

1. Gar grosse Violn de Gamba Sub Bässe entry, Capitel XX, Violen / Geigen Violuntzen, p. 46 ; also in modern print 1884, p. 54 – starts with “N.B.” Internet Archive 2

deren Abriß Col. V zufinden – depiction in Table V
• tuning at p. 25 above

2. Die groß Viol de gamba (Italis Violono, oder Contrabasso da Gamba) entry, Capitel XX, Violen / Geigen Violuntzen, p. 44

• also in modern print 1884, p. 52, middle of page paragpraph Internet Archive 2
deren Abriß in Sciagr col. VI – depiction in Table VI
Contra Basso de Gamba / wird durch eine Quart gestimett, also cited in index p. 210
Violono, also cited in Index p. 229

3. Klein Baß-Viol de Gamba citation, Capitel XX, Violen / Geigen Violuntzen, p. 44

• also in modern print 1884, p. 52, second paragpraph Internet Archive 2
Deren Abriß in Sciagr col. XX – depiction in Table XX , No. 3

4. Gross Quint Bass entry, Capitel XXI, Violn Bracio, p. 48

• also in modern print 1884, p. 57, Internet Archive 2
Sciagr col. VI – depiction in Table XXI

  • Theatrum Instrumentorum seu Sciagraphia, 1620. An appendix to the second volume (Band 2)

Info from Praetorius’ wiki page: “An appendix to the second volume (Theatrum Instrumentorum         seu Sciagraphia, 1620) consists of 42 beautifully drawn woodcuts, depicting instruments of the      early 17th century, all grouped in families and shown to scale.

Online View – Wikimedia CommonsMDZ

• Table V, No. 1, Groß Contra-Bass-Geig

• Table VI, No. 4, Violone, Groß Viol-de Gamba Bass – also at  MDZ

• Table XX, No. 3, Klein Baß-Viol de Gamba 

• Table XXI, No. 6, Bas-Geig de Bracio

  • Syntagma Musicum, Band 3, Wolfenbüttel, 1619 – Index

Online View & Download – Internet ArchiveMDZ

Online in Modern Print – Bassus. Generalis. org

Capitel IV , Kurze Abtheilung aller Instrumenten Wie Die Musiciren Gebraucht Werden, p. 139
Capitel V , Instrumentorum Congrua Appelatio, p. 140-143

Groß Baßgeig – Violone citation, p. 142 [ corrected pagination 122 ] MDZ p. 122

Violone – Groß Baßgeige citation, p. 143 [corrected pagination 123 ] MDZ p. 123

Capitel VI , De Basso Generali Seu Continuo, p. 140
Theil III , Vom Lautisten Harfenisten etc. p. 146

Die grosse Baßgeig & Violone entry – Die grosse Baßgeig, den welschen Violone, gehet, als es den tieffen stimmen gebühret, gar gravitetisch, erhelt mit ihrem lieblichen Resonantz die Harmony der andern Stimmen, und beibt so viel sie immer kan uff den groben Säitten, zum öftern auch der ContraBaß, das ist uff den gröbsten Säiten die Octav anrührend. p. 148

Theil IV, Tromboni Fagotti, p. 159

Die Octav Posaun & Sub – oder Contrabass Violen pairing section, p. 160

Index

Baßgeige 122 – p. 244 [ MDZ 122 ]

Groß Baßgeige 122 – p. 249

Violino. Violone 122. 114. 115. – p. 256 [ MDZ 114 ; MDZ 115 ]

 




Prandi, Giovanni Francesco (16th -17th c.) – Info

  • Compendio della Musica. Bologna, 1606 – Record Link

Transcribed from original print to modern type by MIMTTDocument Download

Citation in Planyavsky 1998, p. 81

[ presents tuning ]




Prinner, Johann Jacob (1624-1694) – Info   

  • Musicalischer Schlissl, Kremsmünster, 1677.

Chapter XIII “Geigen”, French Translation, Download – IMSLP

Violone tuning at p. 4 of the IMSLP pdf

The German original is also preserved in the Library of Congress, Washington DC, yet the online scann is currently not available – Record Link

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 82, Table of all treatises featruing G1 – C – F – A – d – g tuning




Quantz, Johann Joachim (1697-1773) – Info enInfo de

  • Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte Traversiere zu Spielen. 1st ed. Berlin: Johann Friedrich Voss, 1752. Info

Online View & Download – Internet Archive

Von dem Contraviolonisten Insbesondere, Chapter XVII, Section V, p. 218-222

Presented also in standard German font – Wikisource.de

[ Scroll down to the middle of page at Des XVII. Hauptstücks V. Abschnitt. Von dem Contraviolonisten insbesondere. ]

Of the Double Bass Player in Particular, Chapter XVII, Section V, English translation by Edward R. Reilly. [No. 2-7 missing]

  • Essai D’une Méthode Pour Apprendre À Jouer De La Flute Traversière. Berlin: Chez Chretien Frederic Voss, 1752.

Online View & Download – GoogleInternet Archive

De celui qui joue de la Grande Basse de Violon (Violone) en particuler. Chapter XVII, Section V, p. 222-226 – Online View GoogleInternet Archive

Unfortunately both scans are incomplete and partially missing in the “Grand Basse” section . Hopefully a better scan will be offered in the future.

  • Grondig Onderwijs van den Aardt en de Regte Behandeling der Dwarsfluit. Amsterdam : Olofsen, 1754. 1754.

Future research should show if a Von dem Contraviolonisten Insbesondere Chapter was preserved in Amsterdam edition as well.

  • Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote Traversiere zu Spielen. 2nd ed. Breslau: Johann Friedrich Korn, 1780.

Online View & Download – MDZ 1MDZ 2

Von dem Contraviolonisten Insbesondere, Chapter XVII, Section V, p. 218-222

  • Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote Traversiere zu Spielen. 3rd ed. Breslau: Johann Friedrich Korn, 1789.

Von dem Contraviolonisten Insbesondere, Chapter XVII, Section V, p. 219 [ online snippet ]




Reicha, Anton (1770-1836) – Info

  • Vollständiges Lehrbuch der Musikalischen Composition. Vienna: Aton Diabelli, 1834.

Online View & Download – Internet Archive

De la Contre-Basse / Vom Contrabass entry, p. 304-305




Ridinger, Johann Elias (1698-1767) [engraver & publisher] – Info enInfo de 

From a “Musizierende Figuren” series of 4 copperplate engravings in Mezzotint technique.

• Der Gravitätische und Durchdringende Violone. Catalog no. Thienmann 1251, Augsburg, 1730 to 1760 *

Online View VKKDF

Classified in:

Thienmann, Georg Augsut Wilhelm. Leben und Wirken des Unvergleichlichen Thiermalers und Kupferstechers Johann Elias Ridinger. Leipzig: Rudolph  Weigel, 1856.

Online View & Download – Internet Archive 1Internet Archive 2

Zweite Abteilung: Schwarzkunstblätter von und nach Ridinger.
C.  Genrebilder.
e.  Genrebilder  vermischter  Art.
101. Siebente Folge, Vier Blatt, Musizierende Figuren (1251 – 1254)
Der Gravitätische und Durchdringende Violon. p. 262

Index also located in Thienmann site – Index List

* Dating approximate, based on his biography. Further research needed.




Schütz, Heinrich (1585-1672) – Info

  • Musikalische Exequien, Op. 7, SWV 279–281, Dresden, 1635-6 – Info

From the foreword of the original edition [Originale Vorreden Musikalische Exequien]

Vor den Violon oder die grosse Bassgeigen etliche erinnerungen [ scroll down to middle of the page ] – source http://heinrich-schuetz-haus.de

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 13 [presents an English translation]




Speer, Daniel (1636-1709) – Info 

  • Grundrichtiger, Kurtz, Leicht und Nöthiger Unterricht der Musikalischen Kunst. Ulm: Georg Wilhelm Bühnen, 1687. DDB Record

Online View & Download – GoogleMDZ

Bass-Violon entry, p. 89-90

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 82, Table of all treatises featruing G1 – C – F – A – d – g tuning

  • Grundrichtiger, Kurtz, Leicht und Nöthiger Unterricht der Musikalischen Kunst. Ulm: Georg Wilhelm Kühne, 1697. DDB Record

Online View & Download – MDZ

Bass-Violon entry, p. 206-7




Stössel, Johann Christoph (18th c.) – Info

  • Kurtzgefaßtes Musicalisches Lexicon. Chemnitz: Johann Christoph und Johann David Strössel, 1737.

Online View & Download – MDZGoogle

Bass-Violon entry, p. 57

Violone entry, p. 417

  • Kurtzgefaßtes Musicalisches Lexicon: Neue Aufalge (New Edition). Chemnitz: Johann Christoph und Johann David Strössel, 1749

Online View & Download – MDZGoogle

Bass-Violon entry, p. 59

Violone entry, p. 418

N.B. “Bass-Violon” and “Violone” entries appear to be ideantical to those in 1737 edition




Talbot, James (1664-1708) – Info JSTOR

  • Talbot Manuscript. Oxford University, Christ Church Library, Manuscript No. 1187 – Online Index

Colloquially know as Talbot Manuscript this period source dated 1695 offers a record of several bass viol and violone instruments along with their respective tunings.

Bibliography

Baines, Anthony. “James Talbot’s Manuscript. (Christ Church Library Music MS 1187). I. Wind   Instruments.” The Galpin Society Journal. Vol. 1 (Mar., 1948), pp. 9-26 – Online View

Donington, Robert. “James Talbot’s Manuscript. (Christ Church Library Music MS 1187). II. Bowed Strings.” The Galpin Society Journal. Vol. 3 (Mar., 1950), pp. 27-45 – Online View

Focht Josef. “Historische Facetten der Wienier Kontrabasses.” Geschichte, Bauweise und Spieltechnik Der Tiefen Streichinstrumente. Blankenburg: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein, 2004. p. 131 – Online Snippet

Unwin, Robert. “ ‘An English Writer on Music’: James Talbot 1664-1708.” The Galpin Society Journal. Vol. 40 (Dec., 1987), pp. 53-72 – Online View




Todini, Michele (1616-1690) – Info [metmuseum]

  • Dichiaratione Delle Galleria Armonica. Roma: Tizzoni, 1676. Record LinkGoogle [limited access]

Violone – Contrabasso quaotation, p. 81 – “introdussi nelle Musiche di Roma il Violone Grande,          o sia Contrabasso” [ online snippet ]

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 13 [ bottom of the page ]

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 32 [ middle of the page ]

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 82-3 [ including Note. 108 ]




Virdung, Sebastian (1465-1530) – Info  p

  • Musica Getutscht. Basel, 1511.

Online View & Download – Internet ArchiveMDZ

Gross Geigen drawing, p. 9

Citation in Erodi (2009) p. 15 “No sixteenth-century treatise provides an illustration of a bass violin that matches Gaudenzio Ferrari‘s image (Saronno Cathedral, 1535), which is the earliest known iconographical representation of the instrument. Sebastian Virdung, Giovanni Maria Lanfranco, Ludovico Zacconi, and Silvestro Ganassi do not depict bass violins.”

Cititation in Musica Getutscht: A Treatise on Musical Instruments (1511) by Sebastian Virdung. Edited and Translated by Beth Bullard. Cambridge University Press, 1993. Notes to pages 24-26. “Example of errors include: the translation of Gross Geige as “double bass” (Gross Geigen were viols, presumably of several different sizes).”




Walther, Johann Gottfried (1684-1748) – Info

  • Musicalisches Lexicon oder Musicalische Bibliothec. Leipzig: Wolffgang Deer, 1732.

Online View & Download – MDZ Internet ArchiveWikimedia

Basse – Contre entry, p. 78

Basse de Violon entry, p. 78

Basse double oder double Basse entry, p. 78

Violone entry, p. 637

Violonista entry, p. 637




Weigel, Johann Christoph (1661-1726) – Info   

  • Musicalisches Theatrum: Auf Welchen Alle Zu Dieser Edlen Kunst Gehörige Instrumenta in Anmuthigen Posituren Lebhafft Gezeiget Und Allen Music Liebhabern Zu Gefälliger Belustigung Vorgestellet Werden. 2 vols. Nürnberg: Weigel, c.1720

Document DownloadIMSLP

Violon  image, Plate 23, Vol. 1.




Zacconi, Lodovico (1555-1627) – Info

  • Prattica di Musica. Vol. 1, Venetia: Appresso Bartolomeo Carampello, 1596.

Online View & Download – Gallica
Online View – UNT

Libro Quatro, Cap. LIII ( printed LVII), f. 217, Differentiation between Viola da Braccio and Viola da Gamba instrument families – Online View

Further discussion with German translation: Otterstedt, Annette. “Consort bass – Kontrabass”, Geschichte, Bauweise und Spieltechnik Der Tiefen Streichinstrumente. Blankenburg: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein, 2004. p. 109.

Citation in Planyavsky (1998), p. 82, Table of all treatises featruing G1 – C – F – A – d – g tuning



Classification Criteria

Period treatises present a unique challenge in their classification as their profile of expertise can unusally not be so easily defined by modern standards. This issue is further augmented by a unique development of early bass instruments and a definition of double bass within that context. Therefore a need to present a clearly defined set of crietria that is applied for inclsuion of treatises and the terminological references  presented in them, has emerged. For the benefit of wider audiences these criteria are presented here in a form of question and answer dialogue.

What is a treatise?

For the sake of this listing any period document with written or printed text that relates to the field of early basses is consdered. The common forms of these works may include teaching manuals, general music books, theory books, individual instrument treatises with sections on basses, engraver collections of period instrument images with commentary, and also music scores with written sections relevant to the bass field.

What is a double bass?

Modern definition of double bass implies the biggest instrument of the string family with the E1, A1, D, G tuning (regardless of the fact that other tunings are also used). Period definition of double bass will start to wary considerably from this definition the more we start to distance ourselves from our time. Thus the number of tunings, sub tunings, instrument sizes, their period names, their functions and sub functions increases exponentially to the point where a distinction from, or an association with modern instrument is completely blurred. This variety has therefore necessitated a method where one general criterion had to be applied in order to decide on the “cut point” where a reference to the modern instrument stops. More on that in the following entry.

What is the main criterion for inclusion of a treatise in the this listing?

A basic paramenter for inclusion of a treatise is an information (documentation)  that indicates, or at least implies a Contra Range with an instrument it presents. Contra Range in tuning or written part, is an essential element of our modern instrument function that can be traced to the earliest times of string instrument development. When this criterion could not be firmly established in a treatise, and there is still some possibility that an instrument discussed there may be of importance for the study of early basses, than those treatises are labeled as Predecessors.

How is the Contra Range presented – identified in this page?

The following table demostrates the nomencalture, range and pitch definitions as used in this page. For a treatise, or an instrument type discussed it is sufficient that only a single note of a tuning reaches to the Contra Range in order to be included. Contra Range being synonymous with Contra Octave and the 16 Foot Register as presented in the table below.

Octave Classification

What are the other criteria for inclusion in this listing?

There are four basic parameters that can serve to define a bass instrument: Range, Size, Shape and Function. When a sufficient information on all four of these elements is accessible it is fairly easy to define a type of double bass, an early form of a bass, or an instrument whose study may warrant interest from the point of historical research of bass instruments. The problem however is that in many sources one or few of these elemenst are missing and can only be deduced, thus opening a possibility for different interpretations.

What are Predecessor instruments?

These are the instruments described in treaises were one or few of the defining parameters from the above classicifaction are missing. Treatises featuring these instruments are still included here as they were at some point considered in sholarship, and threfore remain of interest for the study of bass instrument evolution and heritage.

What treatises are excluded from this listing?

Treatises that clearly address established period instruments which are not associated double bass lineage, are excluded. The most common of them – and unfortunatley for double bass research – also the most represented in the literature is Viola da Gamba. Thus you will not find here exclusive Viola da Gamba treatises, although an interest in any aspect of their functon that may overlap with contra range and bass function is certainly of interest for bass community. Other period instruments excluded are Tromba Marina, Baryton and Accordo. The unique exception to this rule is a Bass Violin which in some instances reaches by a full tone in the Contra Range and thus by range rule deserves a classification.

What is a Bass Violin?

Bass Violin is a period bass instrument of a Violin family that was used along the bigger basses from late 16th century to the late 18th century. See Erodi (2008) in Bibliography below.

What is a Violone?

The term Violone bears many meanings and its interpretation depends very much on the time period and loaction discussed (thus a classification of main index according to Chronological and Geographical division). The core term in its initial 16th century meaning implies a generic string (viol) instrument that had later evolved to mean “Big Viol” of unspecified size. Onward, during the 17th and 18th centuries, it has established itself as a synonym for Contra Range bass instruments in certain regions. Lastly, during the late 18th century it has become a synonimous with contrabasso, or double bass in a moder sense of the word. In the 19th century Violone term represents exclusively a double bass as we know it today. The general Violone definition of the 17th – 18th century however is still subject to many regional variations and should be always referenced in respect to Geographical and Chronological parameters. The complete uderstanding of this term may still require a considerable amount of additional research in order to be fully understood. For further information please consult “Violone” in the Terminology heading below.



Terminology

This chapter will present issues and available historical nomeclature used to describe 16 foot range stringed instruments from 16th to mid 18th century – a time period before our modern understanding of double bass was established. Although the multitude of terms may appear quite daunting to comprehend and classify precisley, the core terminology can easly be classified in several distinct groups based on Instrument Family: Viols or Violins and the Etymology as realted to instrument name, geographic location, function and its size. The following tables present all pertinent sources according these criteria, followed by Instrument Name Index which offers a listing of all instrument name variants noted in the main bibliogrpahy.

Instrument Families

Please note that online sources do not cover speciffic appearance and definition of Double bass in either a Violin or Viol form, as this subject of interest is still in a process of research and definition. Bass violin here inidicates a period instrument and not a modern bass.

Viol

• Viol – Wiki en

Bass Violin

• Bass Violin – Wiki en

Etymology

Presented are common treatise terms that usually define bass instruments with contra range:

1.  The general and universal term which has become synonymous with contra range instrument within certain geographical and time periods: Violone

2.  Terminology associated with instrument function: Bass, Contrabass – or as a subfunction with adjective Double

3.  Terminology asscoiated with instrument’s (realtive) size: Grosso, Grand

4.  Speciffic terminology realted to language and geographic region usually manifested in either the name variants of the previous classes, or realted to generic instrument family names such as  Geige (German), Viol (French, Italian and English), Violone (agumentativ of Viol)

Violone

• Violone – Wiki en

• Violone – Wiki de      

• Violón – Wiki es

• Violone – Jackson (2005) [ full citation in Bibliogaphy section below ]

Instrument Name Idex

Predecessors

Groß Geigen – Bassus

Violone

Violoni : Basso

        Bass Violins

Baß-Violon

Basse de Violon

16 foot instruments (Contra Range)

Bass-Geigen

Bass-Violon

Basse-Contre

Basse de Violon

Basse double oder double Basse

Brummende Violone

Contrabaß

Contra-Baß

Contrabasso

Contra Basso

Contrabbasso

Contraviolon

Contrabaß

Contrebasse

Contre-Basse

Controbasso

Double Bass

Double Basse

Grande Basse de Violon

Gar Groß Basß-Viol

Gravitätische und Durchdringende Violone

Grosse Bass oder Violon

Grosse Baßgeige oder Contraviolo

Grossen Violon

Violon

Violone

Violone, Bass Geige

Violone Grande

Violone, Gorsse Bassgeige

Violone Grosso

Violone in Contrabasso

Violono



Bibliography

The following bibliography was used as a primary reference to identify and classify featured treatises with pertinent content on early basses and the emergence of bass instruments with contra register. In every instance where an online link was possible, such was provided. The abbreviated name – year quote precedes the full MLA type citation that is usually followed by the most relevant chapter or table-source of interest for this compilation.

Erodi (2009)

  • Erodi, Gyongy Iren. The sixteenth-century basse de violon: fact or fiction? Identification of the bass violin (1535-1635). M.M. Thesis, University of North Texas, Denton, 2009.  Online View & Download – UNT

Table of 16th and 17th Century Violin Family Tunings , p. 51 Online View

Glüxam (2006)

  • Glüxam, Dagmar. Instrumentarium Und Instrumentalstil in Der Wiener Hofoper Zwischen 1705 Und 1740. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 2006.

Chapter 4.1.8. Violone Contrabasso, p. 400

Jackson (2005)

  • Jackson, Roland J. Performance Practice: A Dictionary-Guide for Musicians. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Violone entry, p. 453

Meier (1979)

  • Meier, Adolf. Konzertante Musik Für Kontrabass in Der Wiener Klassik: Mit Beiträgen Zur Geschichte Des Kontrabassbaues in Österreich. 2nd ed. München: Musikverlag E. Katzbichler, 1979.

Table of all early bass and double bass related tunings from 1546 to 1849, p. 30-31

Nobach (2002)

  • Nobach, Christiana. Streichinstrumente. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2002.

Compilation of articles from “Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart” (MGG).

Violone, p. 310

IV. Die Entwicklung im 18 Jahrhundert, 1. Violone und Violoncello, p. 329

Planyavsky (1998)

  • Planyavsky, Alfred. The Baroque Double Bass Violone. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 1998. Online View

Table of all treatises featruing G1 – C – F – A – d – g tuning, p. 82  Online View

Planyavsky (1984)

  • Planyavsky, Alfred. Geschichte Des Kontrabasses. Tutzing: H. Schneider, 1984.

Woodfield (1984)

  • Woodfield, Ian. The Early History of the Viol. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Online View

References to “Contrabasso” as applied to early bass instruments, p. 194-195  Online View

*  *  *

Multiple authors

  • Geschichte, Bauweise Und Spieltechnik Der Tiefen Streichinstrumente. Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte 64. Blankenburg: Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein, 2004.



Databases

Listed are all databases that hold digitized treatises presented on this page. The main listing commonly presents only a database acronym leading to a page view & download option, while this directory offers complete citation in a form of acronym heading, followed by database name and its home institution. Represented you will find a digitization branches of a big European – American libraries, national aggregating organizations, global digitalization organizations, an individual foundations, and even private digitizing initiatives. As with many other offerings on the internet, their interface will vary from one to the other, as the global standards in this field are yet to be established.

BDH

Biblioteca Digital Hispánica – Biblioteca Nacional de Espana – Digitized Collections of the National Library of Spain in Madrid – Advanced Search

BNP

Bibliothèque Numérique Patrimoniale du Service Commun de la Documentation de l’Université de Strasbourg. A Heritage Digital Library of the Common Service Documentation department of the University of Strasbourg, France – Musicology Page

BVCervantes

Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes – Digitalization service of the Miguel de Servantes Foundation, Madrid – Advanced Search

DF

Deutsche Fotothek – A digital image repository of the Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden (SLUB Dresden) – Info enInfo Wiki

DSB

Digitalisierte Sammlungen der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Digital Collections of the Berlin State Library – Music Scores Listing & Search Page

ECHO

European Cultural Heritage Online – An aggregating digital content site hosted by the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin, Germany – Info

FDSevilla

Fondos Digitalizados Univesitad de Sevilla – A digitized collections of the University of Sevilla, Spain – divided to Rare BooksTheses Image Collection

FHB

Freiburger Historische Bestände – Digital – “Digital Collections Freiburg” portal, hosted by the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany

Gallica

Bibliothèque Nationale de France digitalization portal – Info

Google

Google Books – a book digitalization section of the Google company – Google Books AboutWiki Info

HTDL

HathiTrust Digital Library – A digital repository of collections by some of the major research libraries in the United States – Info

IC

Internet Culturale – Cumulative repository of digital catalogs and collections from libraries in Italy

IMSLP

International Music Score Library Project – a virtual library of public domain music scores – Info

Internet Archive

A San Francisco-based nonprofit digital library – Advanced SearchWiki Info

MDZ

Münchener DigitalisierungsZentrum – a Munich Digitization Center of the Bavarian State Library, Germany – Simple SearchAdvanced Search Info en

MIMTT

Manuscripts of Italian Music Theory in Translation (MIMTT) is a database initiated and run by Massimo Redaelli designed to provide English translations of Italian music theory texts preserved in manuscripts dating from the sixteenth century to the present day.

Museo Galileo

A digital collection of the Museo Galileo in Florence, Italy – Advanced SearchInfo en

NLS

National Library of Scotland – Special Collections of Printed Music – Advanced Search

SLUB Dresden

Digital Collections of the Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden (SLUB Dresden) – Info Dresden Digitization Center (DDZ)

ULB Düsseldorf

A collection of digitized prints for the holdings of Heinrich Heine Univeristat -und Landesbibliothek, Digitale Sammlungen, Düsseldorf, Germany – Advanced Search

UR Sibley

An institutional digital repository of the Sibley Music Library at the University of Rochester, US – Info

U. Salzburg

Universitätsbibliothek Salzburg – Abteilung für Sondersammlungen | University Library Salzburg – Deaprtment of Special Collections

Vědecké knihovny v Olomouci

Digital Library of the Historical Funds from the Research Library in Olomouc, Czech Republic – Info

VKK

Virtuelles Kupferstichkabinett – Digital collections of the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum in Braunschweig and the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel – English Interface

UNT

Univeristy of North Texas Digital Library – a centralized repository of the collections held by the libraries, colleges, schools, and departments at the University of North Texas, Denton, US.



Page Development Assistance

ABP is grateful on any information that may widen the scope of this listing. Should you know of any other dictionary that may fit the criteria of this bibliography, please contact ABP and your effort will be credited here.

 

Created by Igor Pecevski

 

Posted: April 27, 2016